Purpose: To describe outcomes with the use of neoadjuvant pelvic chemoradiation followed by prostate interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of synchronous prostate and rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: An Internal Review Board approved retrospective review was undertaken of 4 patients with synchronous prostate and rectal cancer treated between 2006 and 2008. Patients underwent pelvic chemoradiation followed by prostate brachytherapy, then low anterior resection of the rectum with diverting loop ileostomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up evaluation included imaging and laboratory analysis of cancer markers in addition to routine interval history and physical examination. Results: At 38-62 months postdiagnosis (24-53 months post-treatment), 6 of 8 cancers remained without evidence of relapse. One patient had rising carcinoembryonic antigen levels but no clinically evident rectal cancer relapse; another developed bony metastasis of his high-risk prostate cancer. Three patients experienced grade 1-2 treatment-related toxicity; one patient had grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity from radiation and surgery, which precluded his receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and ileostomy reversal. Conclusions: Chemoradiation followed by prostate brachytherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy may be utilized to manage patients with synchronous prostate and rectal cancers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging