Neglected bacterial zoonoses

I. Chikeka, J. S. Dumler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)404-415
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Microbiology and Infection
Volume21
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2015

Keywords

  • Acute febrile illness
  • Borrelia
  • Chiggers
  • Fleas
  • Leptospira
  • Orientia
  • Relapsing fever
  • Rickettsia
  • Ticks
  • Vector-borne bacteria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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