Tenofovir (TFV) is a key component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). TFV is a nucleotide analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitor prodrug that requires two separate phosphorylation reactions by intracellular kinases to form the active metabolite tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP). Muscle-type creatine kinase (CKM) has previously been demonstrated to be the kinase most responsible for the phosphorylation of tenofovir-mono-phosphate (TFV-MP) to the active metabolite in colon tissue. Because of the importance of CKM in TFV activation, genetic variation in CKM may contribute to interindividual variability in TFV-DP levels. In the present study, we report 10 naturally occurring CKM mutations that reduced TFV-MP phosphorylation in vitro: T35I, R43Q, I92M, H97Y, R130H, R132C, F169L, Y173C, W211R, V280L, and N286I. Interestingly, of these 10, only 4—R130H, R132C, W211R, and N286I—reduced both canonical CKM activities: ADP phosphorylation and ATP dephosphorylation. Although positions 130, 132, and 286 are located in the active site, the other mutations that resulted in decreased TFV-MP phosphorylation occur elsewhere in the protein structure. Four of these eight mutations—T35I, R43Q, I92M, and W211R—were found to decrease the thermal stability of the protein. Additionally, the W211R mutation was found to impact protein structure both locally and at a distance. These data suggest a substrate-specific effect such that certain mutations are tolerated for canonical activities while being deleterious toward the pharmacological activity of TFV activation, which could influence PrEP outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine