National trends in pelvic inflammatory disease among adolescents in the Emergency Department

Monika Goyal, Adam Hersh, Xianqun Luan, Russell Localio, Maria E Trent, Theoklis Zaoutis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) broadened the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnostic criteria to increase detection and prevent serious sequelae of untreated PID. The impact of this change on PID detection is unknown. Our objectives were to estimate trends in PID diagnosis among adolescent emergency department (ED) patients before and after the revised CDC definition and to identify factors associated with PID diagnoses. Methods: We performed a retrospective repeated cross-sectional study using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2000 to 2009 of ED visits by 14- to 21-year-old females. We calculated national estimates of PID rates and performed multivariable logistic regression analyses and tests of trends. Results: During 2000-2009, of the 77 million female adolescent ED visits, there were an estimated 704,882 (95% confidence interval [CI], 571,807-837,957) cases of PID. After the revised criteria, PID diagnosis declined from 5.4 cases per 1,000 United States adolescent females to 3.9 cases per 1,000 (p =.03). In a multivariable model, age ≥17 years (odds ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.25-3.64) and black race (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.36-3.07) were associated with PID diagnosis. Conclusions: Despite broadened CDC diagnostic criteria, PID diagnoses did not increase over time. This raises concern about awareness and incorporation of the new guidelines into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-252
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Adolescent Health
Volume53
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2013

Fingerprint

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Hospital Emergency Service
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Confidence Intervals
Odds Ratio
Health Care Surveys
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Guidelines

Keywords

  • Adolescents
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

National trends in pelvic inflammatory disease among adolescents in the Emergency Department. / Goyal, Monika; Hersh, Adam; Luan, Xianqun; Localio, Russell; Trent, Maria E; Zaoutis, Theoklis.

In: Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 53, No. 2, 08.2013, p. 249-252.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Goyal, Monika ; Hersh, Adam ; Luan, Xianqun ; Localio, Russell ; Trent, Maria E ; Zaoutis, Theoklis. / National trends in pelvic inflammatory disease among adolescents in the Emergency Department. In: Journal of Adolescent Health. 2013 ; Vol. 53, No. 2. pp. 249-252.
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abstract = "Purpose: In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) broadened the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnostic criteria to increase detection and prevent serious sequelae of untreated PID. The impact of this change on PID detection is unknown. Our objectives were to estimate trends in PID diagnosis among adolescent emergency department (ED) patients before and after the revised CDC definition and to identify factors associated with PID diagnoses. Methods: We performed a retrospective repeated cross-sectional study using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2000 to 2009 of ED visits by 14- to 21-year-old females. We calculated national estimates of PID rates and performed multivariable logistic regression analyses and tests of trends. Results: During 2000-2009, of the 77 million female adolescent ED visits, there were an estimated 704,882 (95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 571,807-837,957) cases of PID. After the revised criteria, PID diagnosis declined from 5.4 cases per 1,000 United States adolescent females to 3.9 cases per 1,000 (p =.03). In a multivariable model, age ≥17 years (odds ratio, 2.14; 95{\%} CI, 1.25-3.64) and black race (odds ratio, 2.04; 95{\%} CI, 1.36-3.07) were associated with PID diagnosis. Conclusions: Despite broadened CDC diagnostic criteria, PID diagnoses did not increase over time. This raises concern about awareness and incorporation of the new guidelines into clinical practice.",
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