National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations: Final report

Max Hirshkowitz, Kaitlyn Whiton, Steven M. Albert, Cathy Alessi, Oliviero Bruni, Lydia DonCarlos, Nancy Hazen, John Herman, Paula J. Adams Hillard, Eliot S. Katz, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Neubauer, Anne E. O'Donnell, Maurice Ohayon, John Peever, Robert Rawding, Ramesh C. Sachdeva, Belinda Setters, Michael V. Vitiello, J. Catesby Ware

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To make scientifically sound and practical recommendations for daily sleep duration across the life span. Methods: The National Sleep Foundation convened a multidisciplinary expert panel ("Panel") with broad representation from leading stakeholder organizations. The Panel evaluated the latest scientific evidence and participated in a formal consensus and voting process. Then, the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to formulate sleep duration recommendations. Results: The Panel made sleep duration recommendations for 9 age groups. Sleep duration ranges, expressed as hours of sleep per day, were designated as recommended, may be appropriate, or not recommended. Recommended sleep durations are as follows: 14-17 hours for newborns, 12-15 hours for infants, 11-14 hours for toddlers, 10-13 hours for preschoolers, 9-11 hours for school-aged children, and 8-10 hours for teenagers. Seven to 9 hours is recommended for young adults and adults, and 7-8 hours of sleep is recommended for older adults. The self-designated basis for duration selection and critical discussions are also provided. Conclusions: Consensus for sleep duration recommendations was reached for specific age groupings. Consensus using a multidisciplinary expert Panel lends robust credibility to the results. Finally, limitations and caveats of these recommendations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-243
Number of pages11
JournalSleep Health
Volume1
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

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Sleep
Consensus
Politics
Young Adult
Age Groups
Organizations
Newborn Infant

Keywords

  • Life span sleep
  • National Sleep Foundation
  • RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method
  • Sleep adequacy
  • Sleep by age
  • Sleep duration
  • Sleep need
  • Sleep sufficiency
  • Sleep time recommendations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

Hirshkowitz, M., Whiton, K., Albert, S. M., Alessi, C., Bruni, O., DonCarlos, L., ... Ware, J. C. (2015). National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations: Final report. Sleep Health, 1(4), 233-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2015.10.004

National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations : Final report. / Hirshkowitz, Max; Whiton, Kaitlyn; Albert, Steven M.; Alessi, Cathy; Bruni, Oliviero; DonCarlos, Lydia; Hazen, Nancy; Herman, John; Adams Hillard, Paula J.; Katz, Eliot S.; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Neubauer, David; O'Donnell, Anne E.; Ohayon, Maurice; Peever, John; Rawding, Robert; Sachdeva, Ramesh C.; Setters, Belinda; Vitiello, Michael V.; Ware, J. Catesby.

In: Sleep Health, Vol. 1, No. 4, 01.12.2015, p. 233-243.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hirshkowitz, M, Whiton, K, Albert, SM, Alessi, C, Bruni, O, DonCarlos, L, Hazen, N, Herman, J, Adams Hillard, PJ, Katz, ES, Kheirandish-Gozal, L, Neubauer, D, O'Donnell, AE, Ohayon, M, Peever, J, Rawding, R, Sachdeva, RC, Setters, B, Vitiello, MV & Ware, JC 2015, 'National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations: Final report', Sleep Health, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 233-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2015.10.004
Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L et al. National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations: Final report. Sleep Health. 2015 Dec 1;1(4):233-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2015.10.004
Hirshkowitz, Max ; Whiton, Kaitlyn ; Albert, Steven M. ; Alessi, Cathy ; Bruni, Oliviero ; DonCarlos, Lydia ; Hazen, Nancy ; Herman, John ; Adams Hillard, Paula J. ; Katz, Eliot S. ; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila ; Neubauer, David ; O'Donnell, Anne E. ; Ohayon, Maurice ; Peever, John ; Rawding, Robert ; Sachdeva, Ramesh C. ; Setters, Belinda ; Vitiello, Michael V. ; Ware, J. Catesby. / National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations : Final report. In: Sleep Health. 2015 ; Vol. 1, No. 4. pp. 233-243.
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