National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations: Final report

Max Hirshkowitz, Kaitlyn Whiton, Steven M. Albert, Cathy Alessi, Oliviero Bruni, Lydia DonCarlos, Nancy Hazen, John Herman, Paula J. Adams Hillard, Eliot S. Katz, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David N. Neubauer, Anne E. O'Donnell, Maurice Ohayon, John Peever, Robert Rawding, Ramesh C. Sachdeva, Belinda Setters, Michael V. Vitiello, J. Catesby Ware

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To make scientifically sound and practical recommendations for daily sleep duration across the life span. Methods: The National Sleep Foundation convened a multidisciplinary expert panel ("Panel") with broad representation from leading stakeholder organizations. The Panel evaluated the latest scientific evidence and participated in a formal consensus and voting process. Then, the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to formulate sleep duration recommendations. Results: The Panel made sleep duration recommendations for 9 age groups. Sleep duration ranges, expressed as hours of sleep per day, were designated as recommended, may be appropriate, or not recommended. Recommended sleep durations are as follows: 14-17 hours for newborns, 12-15 hours for infants, 11-14 hours for toddlers, 10-13 hours for preschoolers, 9-11 hours for school-aged children, and 8-10 hours for teenagers. Seven to 9 hours is recommended for young adults and adults, and 7-8 hours of sleep is recommended for older adults. The self-designated basis for duration selection and critical discussions are also provided. Conclusions: Consensus for sleep duration recommendations was reached for specific age groupings. Consensus using a multidisciplinary expert Panel lends robust credibility to the results. Finally, limitations and caveats of these recommendations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-243
Number of pages11
JournalSleep Health
Volume1
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

Keywords

  • Life span sleep
  • National Sleep Foundation
  • RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method
  • Sleep adequacy
  • Sleep by age
  • Sleep duration
  • Sleep need
  • Sleep sufficiency
  • Sleep time recommendations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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  • Cite this

    Hirshkowitz, M., Whiton, K., Albert, S. M., Alessi, C., Bruni, O., DonCarlos, L., Hazen, N., Herman, J., Adams Hillard, P. J., Katz, E. S., Kheirandish-Gozal, L., Neubauer, D. N., O'Donnell, A. E., Ohayon, M., Peever, J., Rawding, R., Sachdeva, R. C., Setters, B., Vitiello, M. V., & Ware, J. C. (2015). National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations: Final report. Sleep Health, 1(4), 233-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2015.10.004