National sleep foundation's sleep time duration recommendations: Methodology and results summary

Max Hirshkowitz, Kaitlyn Whiton, Steven M. Albert, Cathy Alessi, Oliviero Bruni, Lydia DonCarlos, Nancy Hazen, John Herman, Eliot S. Katz, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David N. Neubauer, Anne E. O'Donnell, Maurice Ohayon, John Peever, Robert Rawding, Ramesh C. Sachdeva, Belinda Setters, Michael V. Vitiello, J. Catesby Ware, Paula J. Adams Hillard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: The objective was to conduct a scientifically rigorous update to the National Sleep Foundation's sleep duration recommendations. Methods: The National Sleep Foundation convened an 18-member multidisciplinary expert panel, representing 12 stakeholder organizations, to evaluate scientific literature concerning sleep duration recommendations. We determined expert recommendations for sufficient sleep durations across the lifespan using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Results: The panel agreed that, for healthy individuals with normal sleep, the appropriate sleep duration for newborns is between 14 and 17 hours, infants between 12 and 15 hours, toddlers between 11 and 14 hours, preschoolers between 10 and 13 hours, and school-aged children between 9 and 11 hours. For teenagers, 8 to 10 hours was considered appropriate, 7 to 9 hours for young adults and adults, and 7 to 8 hours of sleep for older adults. Conclusions: Sufficient sleep duration requirements vary across the lifespan and from person to person. The recommendations reported here represent guidelines for healthy individuals and those not suffering from a sleep disorder. Sleep durations outside the recommended range may be appropriate, but deviating far from the normal range is rare. Individuals who habitually sleep outside the normal range may be exhibiting signs or symptoms of serious health problems or, if done volitionally, may be compromising their health and well-being.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-43
Number of pages4
JournalSleep Health
Volume1
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015

Keywords

  • Lifespan sleep
  • National Sleep Foundation
  • RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method
  • Sleep adequacy
  • Sleep by age
  • Sleep duration
  • Sleep sufficiency
  • Sleep time recommendations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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