Background Neurocognitive dysfunction and injury remain problematic after cardiac procedures requiring hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). Due to poor blood-brain barrier penetrance and toxicities associated with systemic drug therapies, clinical success has been elusive. Accordingly, we explored targeted dendrimer (a nanoparticle) drug therapies in our well-established canine model of HCA to characterize the biodistribution and cellular localization of these nanoparticles in areas of known neuronal apoptosis and necrosis. Methods Class A, 27- to 30-kg male hounds were administered an initial intravenous bolus (10% of the total dose [200 mg]) of generation-six polyamidoamine dendrimer (6.7 nm) labeled with cyanine 5, and cardiopulmonary bypass with peripheral cannulation was initiated. After 90 minutes of HCA, 70% of the total dose was infused over a 6-hour period. The final 20% of the total dose was given 24 hours post-HCA. The brain was harvested 48 hours later (72 hours post-HCA) and analyzed for dendrimer 6-cyanine 5 biodistribution. Results The dorsal hippocampus demonstrated the highest brain accumulation of dendrimer 6-cyanine 5, which closely corresponds to the distribution of apoptotic neurons evident with histologic staining and on confocal imaging. In injured brain regions, dendrimer traversed the blood-brain barrier and localized within the target cells (injured neurons and microglia). Conclusions These findings have exciting implications for the future development of novel therapeutics to mitigate neurocognitive deficits in this group of patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine