Purpose: Previously, we showed successful imaging of xenografts that express the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiolabeled PSMA inhibitor N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-S-[11C]methyl-L-cysteine. Herein, we extend that work by preparing and testing a PSMA inhibitor of the same class labeled with fluorine-18. Experimental Design: N-[N-[(S)-1,3- Dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-[18F]fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine ([ 18F]DCFBC) was prepared by reacting 4-[18F]fluorobenzyl bromide with the precursor (S) -2- [3- [(R)-1 -carboxy-2-mercaptoethyl]ureido] -pentanedioic acid in ammonia-saturated methanol at 60°C for 10 min followed by purification using C-18 reverse-phase semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing a s.c. PSMA+ PC-3 PIP tumor behind one shoulder and a PSMA- PC-3 FLU tumor behind the other shoulder were injected via the tail vein with either 1.85 MBq (50μ.Ci) of [18F] DCFBC for ex vivo biodistribution or 7.4 MBq (200 μCi) for imaging. For biodistribution, mice were sacrificed at 5,15, 30, 60, and 120 min. Tumor, blood, and major organs were harvested and weighed, and radioactivity was counted. Imaging was done on the GE eXplore Vista small-animal PET scanner by collecting 12 consecutive 10-min frames. Results: Radiochemical yield for [18F] DCFBC averaged 16 ± 6% (n = 8) from 4- [18F]fluoroben-zyl bromide. Specific radioactivities ranged from 13 to 133 GBq/iomol (350-3,600 Ci/mmol) with an average of 52 GBq/μmol (1,392 Ci/mmol; n = 6). Biodistribution and imaging studies showed high uptake of [18F] DCFBC in the PIP tumors with little to no uptake in FLU tumors. High radiopharmaceutical uptake was also seen in kidneys and bladder; however, washout of radioactivity from these organs was faster than from the PIP tumors. The maximum PIP tumor uptake was 8.16 ± 2.55% injected dose per gram, achieved at 60 min after injection, which decreased to 4.69 ± 0.89 at 120 min. The PIP tumor to muscle ratio was 20 at 120 min after injection. Based on the mouse biodistribution, the dose-limiting organ is the kidneys (human estimated absorbed dose: 0.05 mGy/MBq; 0.2 rad/mCi). Conclusion: [ 18F] DCFBC localizes to PSMA+ -expressing tumors in mice, permitting imaging by small-animal PET. This new radiopharmaceutical is an attractive candidate for further studies of PET imaging of prostate cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research