Myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year Atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and possible links to Kudoa clupeidae

R. Reimschuessel, C. M. Gieseker, C. Driscoll, A. Baya, A. S. Kane, V. S. Blazer, J. J. Evans, M. L. Kent, J. D W Moran, Sarah Louise Poynton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to October 1999 and from March to August 2000. We conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-year fish from the Pocomoke River tributary, which has a history of fish mortalities and high lesion prevalence. Kudoa clupeidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) spores were present in the muscles of fish collected in both years. Of the fish assessed by histology in April, 5 to 14% were infected, while in May 90 to 96% were infected. Infection rates remained high during the summer. Mature spores were primarily located within myomeres and caused little or no observable pathological changes. Ultrastructure showed spores with capsulogenic cells bearing filamentous projections, and a basal crescentic nucleus with mottled nucleoplasm containing cleaved, condensed chromatin. Also, a highly invasive plasmodial stage of a myxozoan was found in the lesions of juvenile Atlantic menhaden. The plasmodia were observed in fish collected between May and July, with the maximum occurrence in late June 1999 and late May 2000. Plasmodia penetrated and surrounded muscle bundles, causing grossly observable raised lesions in 73% of all fish infected with this invasive stage. Plasmodia were also detected in the visceral organs, branchial arches, and interocular muscles of some fish. Some of the invasive extrasporogonic plasmodial lesions were associated with ulcers and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. The plasmodial stage appeared to slough out of the tissue with subsequent evidence of wound healing. Ultrastructure showed plasmodia with an elaborate irregular surface, divided into distinct ectoplasm and endoplasm; the latter contained numerous spherical vegetative nuclei, secondary generative cells, and occasional cell doublets. Our ultrastructural studies indicate that the plasmodial organisms, which are important in the etiology of the skin lesions, are myxozoans, and they may represent early stages of K. clupeidae.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-166
Number of pages24
JournalDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
Volume53
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 13 2003

Fingerprint

Kudoa
Brevoortia tyrannus
Clupeidae
Chesapeake Bay
lesion
lesions (animal)
tributary
Plasmodium
fish
infection
spore
muscle
spores
etiology
ultrastructure
muscles
Myxozoa
histology
skin lesions
cells

Keywords

  • Atlantic menhaden
  • Brevoortia tyrannus
  • Kudoa clupeidae
  • Lesions
  • Myxosporea
  • Plasmodia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology

Cite this

Myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year Atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and possible links to Kudoa clupeidae. / Reimschuessel, R.; Gieseker, C. M.; Driscoll, C.; Baya, A.; Kane, A. S.; Blazer, V. S.; Evans, J. J.; Kent, M. L.; Moran, J. D W; Poynton, Sarah Louise.

In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Vol. 53, No. 2, 13.02.2003, p. 143-166.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reimschuessel, R. ; Gieseker, C. M. ; Driscoll, C. ; Baya, A. ; Kane, A. S. ; Blazer, V. S. ; Evans, J. J. ; Kent, M. L. ; Moran, J. D W ; Poynton, Sarah Louise. / Myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year Atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and possible links to Kudoa clupeidae. In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 2003 ; Vol. 53, No. 2. pp. 143-166.
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abstract = "Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to October 1999 and from March to August 2000. We conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-year fish from the Pocomoke River tributary, which has a history of fish mortalities and high lesion prevalence. Kudoa clupeidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) spores were present in the muscles of fish collected in both years. Of the fish assessed by histology in April, 5 to 14{\%} were infected, while in May 90 to 96{\%} were infected. Infection rates remained high during the summer. Mature spores were primarily located within myomeres and caused little or no observable pathological changes. Ultrastructure showed spores with capsulogenic cells bearing filamentous projections, and a basal crescentic nucleus with mottled nucleoplasm containing cleaved, condensed chromatin. Also, a highly invasive plasmodial stage of a myxozoan was found in the lesions of juvenile Atlantic menhaden. The plasmodia were observed in fish collected between May and July, with the maximum occurrence in late June 1999 and late May 2000. Plasmodia penetrated and surrounded muscle bundles, causing grossly observable raised lesions in 73{\%} of all fish infected with this invasive stage. Plasmodia were also detected in the visceral organs, branchial arches, and interocular muscles of some fish. Some of the invasive extrasporogonic plasmodial lesions were associated with ulcers and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. The plasmodial stage appeared to slough out of the tissue with subsequent evidence of wound healing. Ultrastructure showed plasmodia with an elaborate irregular surface, divided into distinct ectoplasm and endoplasm; the latter contained numerous spherical vegetative nuclei, secondary generative cells, and occasional cell doublets. Our ultrastructural studies indicate that the plasmodial organisms, which are important in the etiology of the skin lesions, are myxozoans, and they may represent early stages of K. clupeidae.",
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T1 - Myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year Atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and possible links to Kudoa clupeidae

AU - Reimschuessel, R.

AU - Gieseker, C. M.

AU - Driscoll, C.

AU - Baya, A.

AU - Kane, A. S.

AU - Blazer, V. S.

AU - Evans, J. J.

AU - Kent, M. L.

AU - Moran, J. D W

AU - Poynton, Sarah Louise

PY - 2003/2/13

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N2 - Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to October 1999 and from March to August 2000. We conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-year fish from the Pocomoke River tributary, which has a history of fish mortalities and high lesion prevalence. Kudoa clupeidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) spores were present in the muscles of fish collected in both years. Of the fish assessed by histology in April, 5 to 14% were infected, while in May 90 to 96% were infected. Infection rates remained high during the summer. Mature spores were primarily located within myomeres and caused little or no observable pathological changes. Ultrastructure showed spores with capsulogenic cells bearing filamentous projections, and a basal crescentic nucleus with mottled nucleoplasm containing cleaved, condensed chromatin. Also, a highly invasive plasmodial stage of a myxozoan was found in the lesions of juvenile Atlantic menhaden. The plasmodia were observed in fish collected between May and July, with the maximum occurrence in late June 1999 and late May 2000. Plasmodia penetrated and surrounded muscle bundles, causing grossly observable raised lesions in 73% of all fish infected with this invasive stage. Plasmodia were also detected in the visceral organs, branchial arches, and interocular muscles of some fish. Some of the invasive extrasporogonic plasmodial lesions were associated with ulcers and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. The plasmodial stage appeared to slough out of the tissue with subsequent evidence of wound healing. Ultrastructure showed plasmodia with an elaborate irregular surface, divided into distinct ectoplasm and endoplasm; the latter contained numerous spherical vegetative nuclei, secondary generative cells, and occasional cell doublets. Our ultrastructural studies indicate that the plasmodial organisms, which are important in the etiology of the skin lesions, are myxozoans, and they may represent early stages of K. clupeidae.

AB - Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to October 1999 and from March to August 2000. We conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-year fish from the Pocomoke River tributary, which has a history of fish mortalities and high lesion prevalence. Kudoa clupeidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) spores were present in the muscles of fish collected in both years. Of the fish assessed by histology in April, 5 to 14% were infected, while in May 90 to 96% were infected. Infection rates remained high during the summer. Mature spores were primarily located within myomeres and caused little or no observable pathological changes. Ultrastructure showed spores with capsulogenic cells bearing filamentous projections, and a basal crescentic nucleus with mottled nucleoplasm containing cleaved, condensed chromatin. Also, a highly invasive plasmodial stage of a myxozoan was found in the lesions of juvenile Atlantic menhaden. The plasmodia were observed in fish collected between May and July, with the maximum occurrence in late June 1999 and late May 2000. Plasmodia penetrated and surrounded muscle bundles, causing grossly observable raised lesions in 73% of all fish infected with this invasive stage. Plasmodia were also detected in the visceral organs, branchial arches, and interocular muscles of some fish. Some of the invasive extrasporogonic plasmodial lesions were associated with ulcers and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. The plasmodial stage appeared to slough out of the tissue with subsequent evidence of wound healing. Ultrastructure showed plasmodia with an elaborate irregular surface, divided into distinct ectoplasm and endoplasm; the latter contained numerous spherical vegetative nuclei, secondary generative cells, and occasional cell doublets. Our ultrastructural studies indicate that the plasmodial organisms, which are important in the etiology of the skin lesions, are myxozoans, and they may represent early stages of K. clupeidae.

KW - Atlantic menhaden

KW - Brevoortia tyrannus

KW - Kudoa clupeidae

KW - Lesions

KW - Myxosporea

KW - Plasmodia

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