Myocarditis and Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Noel R. Rose, Ziya Kaya

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Myocarditis, inflammation of the heart muscle, is a prominent cause of heart failure, especially in children and young adults. It can be genetic in origin, the consequence of exposure to a drug or toxin, or a sequela of infection. The possible infectious agents include protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. A number of viruses have been implicated, especially enteroviruses and adenoviruses. During or following the infection, some individuals develop evidence of autoimmunity in the form of heart-specific antibodies and T cells. The autoimmune phase of the disease can be mimicked by direct immunization with cardiac antigens, including myosin heavy chain and troponin. The clinical diagnosis of myocarditis remains a challenge and definitive diagnosis often depends upon findings at autopsy or biopsy. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a chronic form of heart disease involving dilatation, especially of the left ventricle and often leading to congestive heart failure. It may be a sequela of myocarditis. The disease has a high case fatality rate. Investigations of the pathogenesis of viral and immune-mediated myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy have benefited from the development of experimental models in the mouse and rat. The disease can be reproduced in genetically selected hosts by infection with a cardiotropic virus or by immunization with an appropriate cardiac antigen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Autoimmune Diseases
Subtitle of host publicationFifth Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages1033-1048
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9780123849298
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2013

Keywords

  • Beta adrenoreceptor
  • Cardiac myosin
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Endomyocardial biopsy
  • Heart failure
  • Myocarditis
  • Troponin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

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