In the absence of prospective studies that examine the effect of conditioning regimen intensity after T-cell–replete haploidentical transplant for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a retrospective cohort analysis was performed. Of the 1325 eligible patients (AML, n 5 818; ALL, n 5 286; and MDS, n 5 221), 526 patients received a myeloablative regimen and 799 received a reduced-intensity regimen. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was uniform with posttransplant cyclophosphamide, a calcineurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate mofetil. The primary end point was disease-free survival. Cox regression models were built to study the effect of conditioning regimen intensity on transplant outcomes. For patients aged 18 to 54 years, disease-free survival was lower (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 42% vs 51%; P 5 .007) and relapse was higher (HR, 1.51; 44% vs 33%; P 5 .001) with a reduced-intensity regimen compared with a myeloablative regimen. Nonrelapse mortality did not differ according to regimen intensity. For patients aged 55 to 70 years, disease-free survival (HR, 0.97; 37% vs 43%; P 5 .83) and relapse (HR, 1.32; 42% vs 31%; P 5 .11) did not differ according to regimen intensity. Nonrelapse mortality was lower with reduced-intensity regimens (HR, 0.64; 20% vs 31%; P 5 .02). Myeloablative regimens are preferred for AML, ALL, and MDS; reduced-intensity regimens should be reserved for those unable to tolerate myeloablation.
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