IL-4 drives expansion of Th2 cells that cause generation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). Filarial infections are established early in life, induce increased IL-4 production are co-endemic with tuberculosis (TB). We sought to understand, therefore, how mycobacteria are handled in the context of IL-4-induced AAM. Comparing IL-4 generated in vitro monocyte derived human AAMs to LPS and IFN-γ generated classically macrophages (CAMs), both infected with mycobacteria (BCG), we demonstrated increased early BCG uptake and increased IL-10 production in AAMs compared to CAMs. We further demonstrated that increased IL-10 production is mediated by upregulation of tumor progression locus 2 (TPL-2), an upstream activator of extracellular signal related kinases (ERKs) in AAMs but not in CAMs, both at the transcript as well as the protein level. Pharmacologic inhibition of TPL-2 significantly diminished IL-10 production only in BCG-infected AAMs. Finally, we validated our findings in an in vivo C57Bl/6 model of filarial infection, where an exaggerated Th2 induced lung-specific alternative activation led to TPL-2 and IL-10 upregulation on subsequent TB infection. These data show that in response to mycobacterial infection, IL-4 generated AAMs in chronic filarial infections have impaired immune responses to TB infection by increasing IL-10 production in a TPL-2 mediated manner.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)