Muscle pouch implantation: An ectopic bone formation model

Greg Asatrian, Le Chang, Aaron W. James

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ectopic bone formation refers to the ossification of tissue outside of its typical microenvironment. Numerous animal models exist to experimentally induce ectopic bone formation in order to examine the process of osteogenesis or to evaluate the “osteogenic potential” of a given implant. The most widely employed methods in the rodent include subcutaneous, intramuscular, and renal capsule implantation. This chapter will outline the (1) clinical correlates to ectopic ossification, (2) a brief history of experimental models of ectopic ossification, (3) advantages and disadvantages of various models (with a focus on rodent models), and (4) detailed methods and explanation of a mouse intramuscular implantation procedure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-191
Number of pages7
JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014


  • Bone
  • Ectopic
  • Graft
  • Heterotopic
  • Model
  • Muscle pouch implantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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