Prostate cancer continues to be the most common nonskin cancer diagnosed and the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone remains incurable. The interactions between prostate cancer cells and the various cells of the host microenvironment result in enhanced growth of tumor cells and activation of host cells that together culminate in osteoblastic bone metastases. These dynamic tumor-host interactions are mediated by cancer and host-produced cytokines and chemokines. Among them, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) has been identified as a prominent modulator of metastatic growth in the bone microenvironment. CCL2 is produced by bone marrow osteoblasts, endothelial cells, stromal cells, and prostate cancer cells. It has been demonstrated to modulate tumor-Associated macrophage migration and promote osteoclast maturation. In addition, CCL2 functions through binding to its receptor CCR2 to induce prostate cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in both autocrine and paracrine manners. CCL2 protects prostate cancer cells from autophagic death by activating survivin through a PI3K/AKT (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B)-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of CCL2 substantially decreases macrophage infiltration, decreases osteoclast function, and inhibits prostate cancer growth in bone in preclinical animal models. The multiple roles of CCL2 in the tumor microenvironment make it an attractive therapeutic target in metastatic prostate cancer as well as in other cancers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research