Background. Multiphase computed tomography (CT) involves multiple cervical CT acquisitions to accurately identify hyperfunctional parathyroid glands, thus increasing radiation exposure to the patient. We hypothesized that only 2 cervical acquisitions, instead of the conventional 4, would provide equivalent localization information and halve the radiation exposure. Methods. We identified 53 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent multiphase CT before parathyroidectomy. All scans were reinterpreted first using 2 phases then using all 4 phases. The accuracies of interpretations were determined with surgical findings serving as the standard of reference. Results. Sixty-four hyperfunctional parathyroid glands were resected with a mean weight of 394.3 mg. Twophase CT lateralized the hyperfunctional glands in 38 patients with a sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and accuracy of 100%, 71.7%, and 71.7%, respectively. Four-phase CT lateralized the hyperfunctional glands in 39 patientswith a sensitivity, PPV, and accuracy of 95.1%,76.5%, and 73.6%,respectively. For quadrant localization, the accuracy of 2-phase and 4-phase CT was 50.9%and 52.8%, respectively. Conclusion. Our results suggest that 2-phase and 4-phase CT provide an equivalent diagnostic accuracy in localizing hyperfunctional parathyroid glands. The reduced radiation exposure to the patient may make 2-phase acquisitions a more acceptable alternative for preoperative localization.
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