Rationale and Objectives: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate using multiparametric and multinuclear magnetic resonance imaging during preoperative systemic therapy for locally advanced breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Women with operable stage 2 or 3 breast cancer who received preoperative systemic therapy were studied using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and 23Na magnetic resonance. Quantitative metrics of choline peak signal-to-noise ratio, total tissue sodium concentration, tumor volumes, and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors were determined and compared to final pathologic results using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Hormonal markers were investigated. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Results: Eighteen eligible women were studied. Fifteen responded to therapy, four (22%) with pathologic complete response and 11 (61%) with pathologic partial response. Three patients (17%) had no response. Among estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-positive, and triple-negative phenotypes, observed frequencies of pathologic complete response, pathologic partial response, and no response were 2, 5, and 0; 1, 4, and 0; and 1, 1, and 3, respectively. Responders (pathologic complete response and pathologic partial response) had the largest reductions in choline signal-to-noise ratio (35%, from 7.2 ± 2.3 to 4.6 ± 2; P < .01) compared to nonresponders (11%, from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 7.5 ± 3.6; P = .13) after the first cycle. Total tissue sodium concentration significantly decreased in responders (27%, from 66 ± 18 to 48.4 ± 8 mmol/L; P = .01), while there was little change in nonresponders (51.7 ± 7.6 to 56.5 ± 1.6 mmol/L; P = .50). Lesion volume decreased in responders (40%, from 78 ± 78 to 46 ± 51 mm3; P = .01) and nonresponders (21%, from 100 ± 104 to 79.2 ± 87 mm3; P = .23) after the first cycle. The largest reduction in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors occurred after the first treatment in responders (18%, from 24.5 ± 20 to 20.2 ± 18 mm; P = .01), with a slight decrease in tumor diameter noted in nonresponders (17%, from 23 ± 19 to 19.2 ± 19.1 mm; P = .80). Conclusions: Multiparametric and multinuclear imaging parameters were significantly reduced after the first cycle of preoperative systemic therapy in responders, specifically, choline signal-to-noise ratio and sodium. These new surrogate radiologic biomarkers maybe able to predict and provide a platform for potential adaptive therapy in patients.
- Advanced cancer
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Sodium MR
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging