Although glycolysis is a biochemical pathway that evolved under ancient anaerobic terrestrial conditions, recent studies have provided evidence that some glycolytic enzymes are more complicated, multifaceted proteins rather than simple components of the glycolytic pathway. These glycolytic enzymes have acquired additional non-glycolytic functions in transcriptional regulation [hexokinase (HK)-2, lactate dehydrogenase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) and enolase 1], stimulation of cell motility (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) and the regulation of apoptosis (glucokinase, HK and GAPD). The existence of multifaceted roles of glycolytic proteins suggests that links between metabolic sensors and transcription are established directly through enzymes that participate in metabolism. These roles further underscore the need to consider the non-enzymatic functions of enzymes in proteomic studies of cells and tissues.
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