Background: Canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) may face a local optimal problem when analyzing multi-subject fMRI data with inter-subject variability. Beckmann and Smith proposed a tensor PICA approach that incorporated an independence constraint to the spatial modality by combining CPD with ICA, and alleviated the problem of inter-subject spatial map (SM) variability. New method: This study extends tensor PICA to incorporate additional inter-subject time course (TC) variability and to connect CPD and ICA in a new way. Assuming multiple subjects share common TCs but with different time delays, we accommodate subject-dependent TC delays into the CP model based on the idea of shift-invariant CP (SCP). We use ICA as an initialization step to provide the aggregating mixing matrix for shift-invariant CPD to estimate shared TCs with subject-dependent delays and intensities. We then estimate shared SMs using a least-squares fit post shift-invariant CPD. Results: Using simulated fMRI data as well as actual fMRI data we demonstrate that the proposed approach improves the estimates of the shared SMs and TCs, and the subject-dependent TC delays and intensities. The default mode component illustrates larger TC delays than the task-related component. Comparison with existing method(s): The proposed approach shows improvements over tensor PICA in particular when TC delays are large, and also outperforms SCP with SM orthogonality constraint and SCP with ICA-based SM initialization. Conclusions: TCs with subject-dependent delays conform to the true situation of multi-subject fMRI data. The proposed approach is suitable for decomposing multi-subject fMRI data with large inter-subject temporal and spatial variability.
- Canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD)
- Independent component analysis (ICA)
- Inter-subject variability
- Multi-subject fMRI data
- Shift-invariant CP (SCP)
- Tensor PICA
ASJC Scopus subject areas