Motivation to quit smoking among HIV-positive smokers in Vietnam

Nhung Thi Phuong Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Lu Y. Hwang, Christine M. Markham, Michael D. Swartz, Jennifer I. Vidrine, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Carl A Latkin, Damon J. Vidrine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Smoking cessation is emerging as an important component in current HIV care to reduce smoking-related adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to examine motivation to quit and its associated factors in a sample of 409 HIV-positive smokers in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to September 2013 in Hanoi (the capital) and Nam Dinh (a rural city). Motivation to quit was measured by a 4-point single item, and was dichotomized as having any motivation versus no motivation. Smoking history, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence), and other covariates were self-reported by participants. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify correlates of motivation to quit. Results: The sample was mostly male (97%). Mean age was 36 years (SD∈=∈5.8). Approximately 37% and 69% of the sample were hazardous drinkers and ever drug users, respectively. The mean duration of HIV infection and ART treatment were 6 years (SD∈=∈3.6) and 5 years (SD∈=∈2.2), respectively. Overall, 59% of the sample was motivated to quit. Factors significantly associated with motivation to quit were income, pain, currently taking Methadone, and the interaction between binge drinking and lifetime drug use. Individuals with the highest income level (OR∈=∈2.2, 95% CI∈=∈1.3-3.6), moderate income level (OR∈=∈1.8, 95% CI∈=∈1.1-3.1), and currently feeling pain (OR∈=∈1.6, 95% CI∈=∈1.0-2.5) were more likely to be motivated to quit. Conversely, taking Methadone was associated with a lower likelihood of motivation to quit (OR∈=∈0.4, 95% CI∈=∈0.2-0.9). Also, those who reported binge drinking only (OR∈=∈0.5, 95% CI∈=∈0.3-0.9), lifetime drug use only (OR∈=∈0.3, 95% CI∈=∈0.1, 0.7), or both substance uses (OR∈=∈0.4, 95% CI∈=∈0.2, 0.8) were less motivated to quit smoking. Conclusion: Smoking cessation treatment should be integrated into HIV care in Vietnam, and should be tailored to meet specific needs for individuals with different attitudes on smoking, low income, and polysubstance use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1672
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 3 2015



  • Cessation
  • Cigarette
  • HIV
  • Quit
  • Smoking
  • Vietnam

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Nguyen, N. T. P., Tran, B. X., Hwang, L. Y., Markham, C. M., Swartz, M. D., Vidrine, J. I., ... Vidrine, D. J. (2015). Motivation to quit smoking among HIV-positive smokers in Vietnam. BMC Public Health, 15(1), [1672].