The purpose of this study was to test for differences in brain shape among children with cleft palate only (n = 22), children with cleft lip and palate (n = 35), and controls (n = 39) using Euclidean distance matrix analysis. Sixteen percent of interlandmark distances differed between children with cleft palate only and controls, 10% differed between children with cleft lip and palate and controls, and 10% differed between children with cleft palate only and children with cleft lip and palate. Major differences in brain shape associated with cleft lip and/or palate included posterior expansion of the occipital lobe, reorientation of the cerebellum, heightened callosal midbody, and posterior displacement of the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Differences in brain shape unique to cleft palate only and to cleft lip and palate were also identified. These results expand upon previous volumetric studies on brain morphology in individuals with cleft lip and/or palate and provide additional evidence that the primary defect in cleft lip and/or palate results in both facial and brain dysmorphology.
- Brain morphology
- Geometric morphometrics
- Nonsyndromic orofacial clefting
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health