Various techniques which use monocolonal antibodies to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in clinical specimens are reviewed. An investigation comparing the efficacy of immunofluorescent staining with Giemsa staining in detecting Chlamydia in conjunctival scrapings from cases of active trachoma is presented. Sixty-two eyes of schoolboys with moderate to severe trachoma were studied. Giemsa staining detected chlamydial inclusion bodies in 34 percent of the specimens. Free elementary bodies were detected by fluorescent monoclonal antibody in 21 percent. Eleven percent were positive by both Giemsa and immunofluorescence and 55 percent were positive by either Giemsa and/or immunofluorescence. The addition of fluorescent monoclonal antibody assay to routine Giemsa staining resulted in an increase in the yield of positive specimens by 29 percent.
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