Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are essential mechanisms for virtually all dynamic processes within cellular signaling networks. Genetically encoded reporters based on fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools for spatiotemporal visualization of cellular parameters. Consequently, commonly used modular biosensor designs have been adapted to generate several protein-based indicators for monitoring various PTMs or the activity of corresponding enzymes in living cells, providing new biological insights into dynamics and regulatory functions of individual PTMs. In this review, we describe the application of general design strategies focusing on PTMs and discuss important considerations for engineering feasible indicators depending on the purpose. Moreover, we present developments and enhancements of PTM biosensors from selected studies and give an outlook on future perspectives of this versatile approach.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry