Molecular structures that influence the immunomodulatory properties of the lipid A and inner core region oligosaccharides of bacterial lipopolysaccharides

P. J. Baker, T. Hraba, C. E. Taylor, P. W. Stashak, M. B. Fauntleroy, U. Zahringer, K. Takayama, T. R. Sievert, X. Hronowski, Robert J. Cotter, G. Perez-Perez

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Abstract

The relationship between chain length as well as the position of fatty acyl groups to the ability of lipid A to abolish the expression of suppressor T-cell (Ts) activity was examined. Fatty acyl chain lengths of C12 to C14, as in the lipid A of Escherichia coli and Salmonella minnesota, appear to be optimal for this bioactivity, since lipid A preparations with fatty acyl groups of relatively short chain length (C10 to C12 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum) or predominantly long chain length (C18 for Helicobacter pylori) are without effect. The presence of an acyloxyacyl group of appropriate chain length at the 3' position of the glucosamine disaccharide backbone of lipid A also plays a decisive role. By contrast, the lipid A proximal inner core region oligosaccharides of some bacterial lipopolysaccharides increase the expression of Ts activity; this is due mainly to the capacity of such oligosaccharides, which are relatively conserved in structure among gram-negative bacteria, to enlarge or expand upon the population of CD8+ Ts generated during the course of a normal antibody response to unrelated microbial antigens. The minimal structure required for the expression of the added immunosuppression observed appears to be a hexasaccharide containing one 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate residue, two glucose residues, and three heptose residues to which are attached two pyrophosphorylethanolamine groups. The relevance of these findings to virulence and to the pathogenesis of gram-negative infections is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2257-2269
Number of pages13
JournalInfection and Immunity
Volume62
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

Baker, P. J., Hraba, T., Taylor, C. E., Stashak, P. W., Fauntleroy, M. B., Zahringer, U., ... Perez-Perez, G. (1994). Molecular structures that influence the immunomodulatory properties of the lipid A and inner core region oligosaccharides of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Infection and Immunity, 62(6), 2257-2269.