Molecular physiology and pathophysiology of tight junctions. V. Assault of the tight junction by enteric pathogens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Studies of the impact of enteric pathogens and their virulence factors on the proteins comprising the tight junction and zonula adherens offer a novel approach to dissection of tight junctional complex regulation. Most studies to date provide only tantalizing clues that select pathogens may indeed assault the tight junctional complex. Information on critical human pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni and Shigella and Salmonella subspecies is lacking. Mechanistic studies are currently sparse, but available results on pathogenic Escherichia coli and specific virulence factors such as the Rho-modifying and protease bacterial toxins indicate four major mechanisms by which these pathogens may act: 1) direct cleavage of tight junctional structural proteins; 2) modification of the actin cytoskeleton; 3) activation of cellular signal transduction; and 4) triggering transmigration of polymorphonuclear cells across the epithelial cell barrier. New therapeutics may evolve from detailed studies of these pathogens and the cellular processes and proteins they disrupt.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Volume279
Issue number6 42-6
StatePublished - 2000

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Tight Junctions
Virulence Factors
Tight Junction Proteins
Bacterial Toxins
Adherens Junctions
Campylobacter jejuni
Shigella
Actin Cytoskeleton
Salmonella
Dissection
Signal Transduction
Proteins
Peptide Hydrolases
Epithelial Cells
Escherichia coli
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Bacterial toxins
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Intestinal epithelial cell
  • Zonula adherens
  • Zonula occludens

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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abstract = "Studies of the impact of enteric pathogens and their virulence factors on the proteins comprising the tight junction and zonula adherens offer a novel approach to dissection of tight junctional complex regulation. Most studies to date provide only tantalizing clues that select pathogens may indeed assault the tight junctional complex. Information on critical human pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni and Shigella and Salmonella subspecies is lacking. Mechanistic studies are currently sparse, but available results on pathogenic Escherichia coli and specific virulence factors such as the Rho-modifying and protease bacterial toxins indicate four major mechanisms by which these pathogens may act: 1) direct cleavage of tight junctional structural proteins; 2) modification of the actin cytoskeleton; 3) activation of cellular signal transduction; and 4) triggering transmigration of polymorphonuclear cells across the epithelial cell barrier. New therapeutics may evolve from detailed studies of these pathogens and the cellular processes and proteins they disrupt.",
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