Objectives. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a member of the human kallikrein (hK) family, is the most important tumor marker for early detection, staging, and monitoring of men with prostate cancer today. However, the sensitivity of serum PSA is not sufficient to be used alone for prostate cancer screening. Recently, it was reported that the serum-to- urinary total PSA ratio improves the detection of men with prostate cancer, especially in men with a serum total PSA level between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the clinical usefulness of this PSA ratio as well as the use of the different molecular forms of PSA and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) in urine for detection and staging of prostate cancer. Methods. One hundred ten fresh, midstream urine specimens (prostate cancer 62, benign prostatic hyperplasia [BPH] 38, healthy male control 5, women 5) were collected. Serum total PSA, urine total PSA, urinary free PSA, urinary alpha1-antichymotrypsin-bound PSA, and urinary hK2 levels were determined by monoclonal antibody assays (Hybritech Inc.). The serum-to-urinary total PSA ratio was calculated. Results. The serum-to-urinary total PSA ratio did not accurately distinguish between men with BPH and men with prostate cancer. There was no significant difference between the urinary levels of any of the molecular forms of PSA or hK2 between men with prostate cancer and men with BPH. Among men with prostate cancer, neither urinary hK2 nor urinary levels of any of the molecular forms of PSA correlated with age, pathologic stage, or Gleason grade. Conclusions. In our study, the serum-to-urinary total PSA ratio did not improve the detection of men with prostate cancer. Furthermore, measurement of the molecular forms of PSA and hK2 in urine did not improve the detection or staging of prostate cancer over serum PSA alone.
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