Molecular Epidemiology of Ceftriaxone-Nonsusceptible Enterobacterales Isolates in an Academic Medical Center in the United States

Pranita D. Tamma, Sima L. Sharara, Zoi D. Pana, Joe Amoah, Stephanie L. Fisher, Tsigereda Tekle, Yohei Doi, Patricia J. Simner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Knowledge of whether Enterobacterales are not susceptible to ceftriaxone without understanding the underlying resistance mechanisms may not be sufficient to direct appropriate treatment decisions. As an example, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms almost uniformly display nonsusceptibility to ceftriaxone. Regardless of susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam or cefepime, carbapenem antibiotics are the treatment of choice for invasive infections. No such guidance exists for ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible organisms with mechanisms other than ESBL production. We sought to investigate the molecular epidemiology of ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible Enterobacterales. Methods: All consecutive Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, or Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates with ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≥2 mcg/mL from unique patients at a United States hospital over an 8-month period were evaluated for β-lactamase genes using a DNA microarray-based assay. Results: Of 1929 isolates, 482 (25%) had ceftriaxone MICs of ≥2 mcg/mL and were not resistant to any carbapenem antibiotics. Of the 482 isolates, ESBL (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM) and/or plasmid-mediated ampC (p-ampC) genes were identified in 376 (78%). ESBL genes were identified in 310 (82.4%), p-ampC genes in 2 (0.5%), and both ESBL and p-ampC genes in 64 (17.0%) of the 376 organisms. There were 211 (56%), 120 (32%), 41 (11%), and 4 (1%) isolates with 1, 2, 3, or ≥4 ESBL or p-ampC genes. The most common ESBL genes were of the blaCTX-M-1 group (includes blaCTX-M-15), and the most common p-ampC gene was blaCMY-2. Conclusions: There is considerable diversity in the molecular epidemiology of ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible Enterobacterales. An understanding of this diversity can improve antibiotic decision-making.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofz353
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume6
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019

Keywords

  • Check-Points
  • ESBL
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • ampC beta-lactamase
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • extended-spectrum beta-lactamase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology

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