The unprecedented advances in cancer genetics and genomics are rapidly affecting the clinical management of solid tumors. Molecular diagnostics are now an integral part of routine clinical management for patients with lung, colon, and breast cancer. In sharp contrast, molecular biomarkers have been largely excluded from current management algorithms for urologic malignancies. The need for new treatment options that can improve upon the modest outcomes currently associated with muscle-invasive bladder cancer is evident, and validated prognostic molecular biomarkers that can help clinicians to identify patients in need of early, aggressive management are lacking. Robust predictive biomarkers that are able to forecast and stratify responses to emerging targeted therapies are also needed.
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