Molecular biomarkers in multiple sclerosis and its related disorders: A critical review

Maryam Gul, Amirhossein Azari Jafari, Muffaqam Shah, Seyyedmohammadsadeq Mirmoeeni, Safee Ullah Haider, Sadia Moinuddin, Ammar Chaudhry

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which can lead to severe disability. Several diseases can mimic the clinical manifestations of MS. This can often lead to a prolonged period that involves numerous tests and investigations before a definitive diagnosis is reached. As well as the possibility of misdiagnosis. Molecular biomarkers can play a unique role in this regard. Molecular biomarkers offer a unique view into the CNS disorders. They help us understand the pathophysiology of disease as well as guiding our diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic approaches in CNS disorders. This review highlights the most prominent molecular biomarkers found in the literature with respect to MS and its related disorders. Based on numerous recent clinical and experimental studies, we demonstrate that several molecular biomarkers could very well aid us in differentiating MS from its related disorders. The implications of this work will hopefully serve clinicians and researchers alike, who regularly deal with MS and its related disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6020
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Biomarker
  • Differential diagnosis
  • MS
  • Mimics
  • Molecular
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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