Molecular biology of human herpesvirus 8: Novel functions and virus-host interactions implicated in viral pathogenesis and replication

Emily Cousins, John Nicholas

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the second identified human gammaherpesvirus. Like its relative Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-8 is linked to B-cell tumors, specifically primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, in addition to endothelial-derived KS. HHV-8 is unusual in its possession of a plethora of "accessory" genes and encoded proteins in addition to the core, conserved herpesvirus and gammaherpesvirus genes that are necessary for basic biological functions of these viruses. The HHV-8 accessory proteins specify not only activities deducible from their cellular protein homologies but also novel, unsuspected activities that have revealed new mechanisms of virus-host interaction that serve virus replication or latency and may contribute to the development and progression of virus-associated neoplasia. These proteins include viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), viral chemokines (vCCLs), viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs), and viral antiapoptotic proteins homologous to FLICE (FADD-like IL-1β converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (FLIP) and survivin. Other HHV-8 proteins, such as signaling membrane receptors encoded by open reading frames K1 and K15, also interact with host mechanisms in unique ways and have been implicated in viral pathogenesis. Additionally, a set of micro-RNAs encoded by HHV-8 appear to modulate expression of multiple host proteins to provide conditions conducive to virus persistence within the host and could also contribute to HHV-8-induced neoplasia. Here, we review the molecular biology underlying these novel virus-host interactions and their potential roles in both virus biology and virus-associated disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationViruses and Human Cancer
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Basic Science to Clinical Prevention
PublisherSpringer New York LLC
Pages227-268
Number of pages42
ISBN (Print)9783642389641
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Publication series

NameRecent Results in Cancer Research
Volume193
ISSN (Print)0080-0015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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    Cousins, E., & Nicholas, J. (2014). Molecular biology of human herpesvirus 8: Novel functions and virus-host interactions implicated in viral pathogenesis and replication. In Viruses and Human Cancer: From Basic Science to Clinical Prevention (pp. 227-268). (Recent Results in Cancer Research; Vol. 193). Springer New York LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38965-8_13