Approximately 52,300 new cases of carcinoma of the bladder were diagnosed in the United States in 19931. These carcinomas struck primarily older men, who often presented with hematuria or increased frequency of urination. Patients whose cancers are detected in an early, localized stage have a 90 percent chance of surviving at least five years. If the cancer is detected after distant spread of the disease, however, the five-year survival rate drops to 9 percent1. Clearly, techniques for the early detection of carcinoma of the bladder can have a major impact on the outcome of the disease2. Cytologic.
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