Molecular analysis of primary gastric cancer, corresponding xenografts, and 2 novel gastric carcinoma cell lines reveals novel alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

Anya N A Milne, Robert Sitarz, Ralph Carvalho, Mirjam M. Polak, Marjolijn Ligtenberg, Patrick Pauwels, G. Johan A Offerhaus, Marian A J Weterman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We report the molecular characterization of 8 primary gastric carcinomas, corresponding xenografts, and 2 novel gastric carcinoma cell lines. We compared the tumors and cell lines, with respect to histology, immunohistochemistry, copy number, and hypermethylation of up to 38 genes using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and TP53 and CDH1 mutation analysis where relevant. The primary tumors and xenografts were histologically comparable and shared expression of 11 of 14 immunohistochemical markers (E-cadherin, β-catenin, COX-2, p53, p16, TFF1, cyclin E, MLH1, SMAD4, p27, KLK3, CASR, CHFR, and DAPK1). Gains of CASR, DAPK1, and KLK3-not yet described in gastric cancer-were present in the primary tumors, xenografts, and cell lines. The most prominent losses occurred at CDKN2A (p16), CDKN2B (p15), CDKN1B (p27/KIP1), and ATM. Except for ATM, these losses were found only in the cell line or xenograft, suggesting an association with tumor progression. However, examination of p16 and p27 in 174 gastric cancers using tissue microarrays revealed no significant correlation with tumor stage or lymph node status. Further losses and hypermethylation were detected for MLH1, CHFR, RASSF1, and ESR, and were also seen in primary tumors. Loss of CHFR expression correlated significantly with the diffuse phenotype. Interestingly, we found the highest rate of methylation in primary tumors which gave rise to cell lines. In addition, both cell lines harbored mutations in CDH1, encoding E-cadherin. Xenografts and gastric cancer cell lines remain an invaluable research tool in the uncovering of the multistep progression of cancer. The frequent gains, losses, and hypermethylation reported in this study indicate that the involved genes or chromosomal regions may be relevant to gastric carcinogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)903-913
Number of pages11
JournalHuman Pathology
Volume38
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2007
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Gastric cancer
  • MLPA
  • Xenografts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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