Bacterial secretion systems play a central role in interfering with host inflammatory responses to promote replication in tissue sites. Many intracellular bacteria utilize secretion systems to promote their uptake and survival within host cells. An intracellular niche can help bacteria avoid killing by phagocytic cells, and may limit host sensing of bacterial components. Secretion systems can also play an important role in limiting host sensing of bacteria by translocating proteins that disrupt host immune signalling pathways. Extracellular bacteria, on the other hand, utilize secretion systems to prevent uptake by host cells and maintain an extracellular niche. Secretion systems, in this case, limit sensing and inflammatory signalling which can occur as bacteria replicate and release bacterial products in the extracellular space. In this review, we will cover the common mechanisms used by intracellular and extracellular bacteria to modulate innate immune and inflammatory signalling pathways, with a focus on translocated proteins of the type III and type IV secretion systems.
ASJC Scopus subject areas