Modulation of cerebellar excitability by polarity-specific noninvasive direct current stimulation

Joseph M. Galea, Gowri Jayaram, Loni Ajagbe, Pablo A Celnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The cerebellum is a crucial structure involved in movement control and cognitive processing. Noninvasive stimulation of the cerebellum results in neurophysiological and behavioral changes, an effect that has been attributed to modulation of cerebello- brain connectivity. At rest, the cerebellum exerts an overall inhibitory tone over the primary motor cortex (M1), cerebello- brain inhibition (CBI), likely through dentate-thalamo- cortical connections. The level of excitability of this pathway before and after stimulation of the cerebellum, however, has not been directly investigated. In this study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to determine changes in M1, brainstem, and CBI before and after 25 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the right cerebellar cortex. We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would result in an enhancement of CBI and cathodal would decrease it, relative to sham stimulation.Wefound that cathodal tDCS resulted in a clear decrease of CBI, whereas anodal tDCS increased it, in the absence of changes after sham stimulation. These effects were specific to the cerebello- cortical connections with no changes in other M1 or brainstem excitability measures. The cathodal effect on CBI was found to be dependent on stimulation intensity and lasted up to 30 min after the cessation of tDCS. These results suggest that tDCS can modulate in a focal and polarity-specific manner cerebellar excitability, likely through changes in Purkinje cell activity. Therefore, direct current stimulation of the cerebellum may have significant potential implications for patients with cerebellar dysfunction as well as to motor control studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9115-9122
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume29
Issue number28
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 15 2009

Fingerprint

Cerebellum
Brain
Brain Stem
Cerebellar Diseases
Cerebellar Cortex
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Purkinje Cells
Motor Cortex
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Inhibition (Psychology)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Modulation of cerebellar excitability by polarity-specific noninvasive direct current stimulation. / Galea, Joseph M.; Jayaram, Gowri; Ajagbe, Loni; Celnik, Pablo A.

In: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 29, No. 28, 15.07.2009, p. 9115-9122.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Galea, Joseph M. ; Jayaram, Gowri ; Ajagbe, Loni ; Celnik, Pablo A. / Modulation of cerebellar excitability by polarity-specific noninvasive direct current stimulation. In: Journal of Neuroscience. 2009 ; Vol. 29, No. 28. pp. 9115-9122.
@article{c02c0ac7bb874e56beb3a47422b21d08,
title = "Modulation of cerebellar excitability by polarity-specific noninvasive direct current stimulation",
abstract = "The cerebellum is a crucial structure involved in movement control and cognitive processing. Noninvasive stimulation of the cerebellum results in neurophysiological and behavioral changes, an effect that has been attributed to modulation of cerebello- brain connectivity. At rest, the cerebellum exerts an overall inhibitory tone over the primary motor cortex (M1), cerebello- brain inhibition (CBI), likely through dentate-thalamo- cortical connections. The level of excitability of this pathway before and after stimulation of the cerebellum, however, has not been directly investigated. In this study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to determine changes in M1, brainstem, and CBI before and after 25 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the right cerebellar cortex. We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would result in an enhancement of CBI and cathodal would decrease it, relative to sham stimulation.Wefound that cathodal tDCS resulted in a clear decrease of CBI, whereas anodal tDCS increased it, in the absence of changes after sham stimulation. These effects were specific to the cerebello- cortical connections with no changes in other M1 or brainstem excitability measures. The cathodal effect on CBI was found to be dependent on stimulation intensity and lasted up to 30 min after the cessation of tDCS. These results suggest that tDCS can modulate in a focal and polarity-specific manner cerebellar excitability, likely through changes in Purkinje cell activity. Therefore, direct current stimulation of the cerebellum may have significant potential implications for patients with cerebellar dysfunction as well as to motor control studies.",
author = "Galea, {Joseph M.} and Gowri Jayaram and Loni Ajagbe and Celnik, {Pablo A}",
year = "2009",
month = "7",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2184-09.2009",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "9115--9122",
journal = "Journal of Neuroscience",
issn = "0270-6474",
publisher = "Society for Neuroscience",
number = "28",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Modulation of cerebellar excitability by polarity-specific noninvasive direct current stimulation

AU - Galea, Joseph M.

AU - Jayaram, Gowri

AU - Ajagbe, Loni

AU - Celnik, Pablo A

PY - 2009/7/15

Y1 - 2009/7/15

N2 - The cerebellum is a crucial structure involved in movement control and cognitive processing. Noninvasive stimulation of the cerebellum results in neurophysiological and behavioral changes, an effect that has been attributed to modulation of cerebello- brain connectivity. At rest, the cerebellum exerts an overall inhibitory tone over the primary motor cortex (M1), cerebello- brain inhibition (CBI), likely through dentate-thalamo- cortical connections. The level of excitability of this pathway before and after stimulation of the cerebellum, however, has not been directly investigated. In this study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to determine changes in M1, brainstem, and CBI before and after 25 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the right cerebellar cortex. We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would result in an enhancement of CBI and cathodal would decrease it, relative to sham stimulation.Wefound that cathodal tDCS resulted in a clear decrease of CBI, whereas anodal tDCS increased it, in the absence of changes after sham stimulation. These effects were specific to the cerebello- cortical connections with no changes in other M1 or brainstem excitability measures. The cathodal effect on CBI was found to be dependent on stimulation intensity and lasted up to 30 min after the cessation of tDCS. These results suggest that tDCS can modulate in a focal and polarity-specific manner cerebellar excitability, likely through changes in Purkinje cell activity. Therefore, direct current stimulation of the cerebellum may have significant potential implications for patients with cerebellar dysfunction as well as to motor control studies.

AB - The cerebellum is a crucial structure involved in movement control and cognitive processing. Noninvasive stimulation of the cerebellum results in neurophysiological and behavioral changes, an effect that has been attributed to modulation of cerebello- brain connectivity. At rest, the cerebellum exerts an overall inhibitory tone over the primary motor cortex (M1), cerebello- brain inhibition (CBI), likely through dentate-thalamo- cortical connections. The level of excitability of this pathway before and after stimulation of the cerebellum, however, has not been directly investigated. In this study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to determine changes in M1, brainstem, and CBI before and after 25 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the right cerebellar cortex. We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would result in an enhancement of CBI and cathodal would decrease it, relative to sham stimulation.Wefound that cathodal tDCS resulted in a clear decrease of CBI, whereas anodal tDCS increased it, in the absence of changes after sham stimulation. These effects were specific to the cerebello- cortical connections with no changes in other M1 or brainstem excitability measures. The cathodal effect on CBI was found to be dependent on stimulation intensity and lasted up to 30 min after the cessation of tDCS. These results suggest that tDCS can modulate in a focal and polarity-specific manner cerebellar excitability, likely through changes in Purkinje cell activity. Therefore, direct current stimulation of the cerebellum may have significant potential implications for patients with cerebellar dysfunction as well as to motor control studies.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=67650757179&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=67650757179&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2184-09.2009

DO - 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2184-09.2009

M3 - Article

C2 - 19605648

AN - SCOPUS:67650757179

VL - 29

SP - 9115

EP - 9122

JO - Journal of Neuroscience

JF - Journal of Neuroscience

SN - 0270-6474

IS - 28

ER -