Modeling, chemistry, and biology of the benzolactam analogues of indolactam V (ILV). 2. Identification of the binding site of the benzolactams in the CRD2 activator-binding domain of PKCδ and discovery of an ILV analogue of improved isozyme selectivity

Alan P. Kozikowski, Shaomeng Wang, Dawei Ma, Jiangchao Yao, Shakeel Ahmad, Robert I. Glazer, Krisztina Bogi, Peter Acs, Shayan Modarres, Nancy E. Lewin, Peter M. Blumberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a complex enzyme system comprised of at least 11 isozymes that serves to mediate numerous extracellular signals which generate lipid second messengers. The discovery of isozyme-selective activators and inhibitors (modulators) of PKC is crucial to ascertaining the role of the individual isozymes in physiological and pathophysiological processes and to manipulating their function. The discovery of such small molecule modulators of PKC is at present a largely unmet pharmacological need. Herein we detail our modeling studies which reveal how the natural product indolactam V (ILV) and its 8-membered ring analogue, the benzolactam 15, bind to the CRD2 activator domain of PKC. These modeling studies reveal that not all PKC ligands possess a common pharmacophore, and further suggest an important role of specific hydrophobic contacts in the PKC-ligand interaction. The modeling studies find strong experimental support from mutagenesis studies on PKCα that reveal the crucial role played by the residues proline 11, leucine 20, leucine 24, and glycine 27. Next, we describe the synthesis of two 8-substituted benzolactams starting from L- phenylalanine and characterize their isozyme selectivity; one of the two benzolactams exhibits improved isozyme selectivity relative to the n-octyl- ILV. Lastly, we report inhibition of cellular proliferation of two different breast carcinoma cell lines by the benzolactam 5 and show that the compound preferentially down-regulates PKCβ in both cell lines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1316-1326
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of medicinal chemistry
Volume40
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 25 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery

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