Model of nitric oxide diffusion in an arteriole: Impact of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes

Mahendra Kavdia, Nikolaos M. Tsoukias, Aleksander S. Popel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Administration of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) frequently results in vasoconstriction that is primarily attributed to the scavenging of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) by cell-free hemoglobin. The ensuing pressor response could be caused by the high NO reactivity of HBOC in the vascular lumen and/or the extravasation of hemoglobin molecules. There is a need for quantitative understanding of the NO interaction with HBOC in the blood vessels. We developed a detailed mathematical model of NO diffusion and reaction in the presence of an HBOC for an arteriolarsize vessel. The HBOC reactivity with NO and degree of extravasation was studied in the range of 2-58 × 106 M-1·s-1 and 0-100%, respectively. The model predictions showed that the addition of HBOC reduced the smooth muscle (SM) NO concentration in the activation range (12-28 nM) for soluble guanylate cyclase, a major determinant of SM contraction. The SM NO concentration was significantly reduced when the extravasation of HBOC molecules was considered. The myoglobin present in the parenchymal cells scavenges NO, which reduces the SM NO concentration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H2245-H2253
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number6 51-6
StatePublished - 2002


  • Extravasation
  • Mathematical model
  • Microcirculation
  • Myoglobin
  • Vasoconstriction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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