Mobile elements in the human genome: Implications for disease

Szilvia Solyom, Haig H. Kazazian

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Perhaps as much as two-thirds of the mammalian genome is composed of mobile genetic elements ('jumping genes'), a fraction of which is still active or can be reactivated. By their sheer number and mobility, retrotransposons, DNA transposons and endogenous retroviruses have shaped our genotype and phenotype both on an evolutionary scale and on an individual level. Notably, at least the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons are still able to cause disease by insertional mutagenesis, recombination, providing enzymatic activities for other mobile DNA, and perhaps by transcriptional overactivation and epigenetic effects. Currently, there are nearly 100 examples of known retroelement insertions that cause disease. In this review, we highlight those genome-scale technologies that have expanded our knowledge of the diseases that these mobile elements can elicit, and we discuss the potential impact of these findings for medicine. It is now likely that at least some types of cancer and neurological disorders arise as a result of retrotransposon mutagenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12
JournalGenome Medicine
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 24 2012

Keywords

  • Alu
  • Disease
  • Genomics
  • HERV
  • LINE-1
  • Retrotransposon
  • SVA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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