miRNAs/Small Noncoding RNAs

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

microRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22 nucleotide long, small noncoding RNAs that function in posttranscriptional gene silencing and play fundamental roles in biology. miRNAs are produced by sequential cleavage of precursor RNA transcripts by the Ribonuclease III enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. Then miRNAs are loaded to the effector protein, Argonaute, forming miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). miRISC binds mRNA targets via sequence complementarity and silences the targets by translational repression and/or mRNA destabilization. Human genome contains over 1800 miRNAs, which target 60% of human mRNAs. Mutations in the miRNA genes and the miRNA pathway genes are associated with various human diseases including cancers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMolecular Cell Biology
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages354-363
Number of pages10
Volume1
ISBN (Electronic)9780123944474
ISBN (Print)9780123947963
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Keywords

  • Argonaute
  • Dicer
  • Drosha
  • DsRNA
  • Gene silencing
  • MiRISC
  • MiRNA
  • MicroRNA
  • RISC
  • SiRNA
  • Small interfering RNA
  • Small noncoding RNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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