Purpose: To elucidate the inhibitory effect of minocycline and sulforaphane on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced retinal microglial activation and the mechanisms through which they exerted their inhibitory effects. Methods: Primary retinal microglial cultures were exposed to LPS with or without minocycline and sulforaphane. The mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, MCP-3, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, eotaxin, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) protein, and interleukin (IL)-10 were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent nitric oxide (NO) production were examined by RT-PCR assay and Griess reagent assay. Protein expression of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-ΚB (NF-ΚB) and p-p38, p-p44/42 and p-JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were examined by Western blot and immunofluorescent analysis. Results: Cultured retinal microglial cells were activated following exposure to LPS. The mRNA expression and protein production of eotaxin, RANTES, and IL-10 and the mRNA expression of iNOS and subsequent NO production were upregulated. The protein expression of p-p38, p-JNK, and the p65 subunit of NF-ΚB were also upregulated. However, the protein expression of p-p44/42 was not significantly changed. Pretreatment with minocycline or sulforaphane for 1 h before LPS administration inhibited LPS-induced microglial morphological change and inhibited LPS-induced upregulation of p-p38, but had no effect on the expression of p-p44/42, p-JNK, and the p65 subunit of NF-ΚB. Conclusions: Minocycline and sulforaphane inhibited LPS-induced retinal microglial activation, Western blot and immunofluorescent studies showed decreased p-p38 MAPK expression. We suggested that the inhibitory effect of minocycline and sulforaphane was partly through a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Jul 9 2007|
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