Mid-IR germanium oxide fibers for erbium: YAG and erbium:YSGG contact laser tissue ablation in endourology

Nicholas J. Scott, Robert A. Barton, Andrew L. Casperson, Alexei Tchapyjnikov, Ken Levin, Danh Tran, Nathaniel M. Fried

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Endoscopic surgical applications of Erbium:YAG and Erbium:YSGG lasers have been limited due to the lack of a suitable mid-IR optical fiber delivery system. Germanium oxide fibers are currently used in the clinic for non-contact tissue ablation, but are not recommended for contact tissue ablation applications typically required during endoscopic surgery in a fluid environment. This study describes the assembly and characterization of hybrid mid-IR fibers consisting of germanium oxide trunk fibers and sapphire fiber tips, and side-firing germanium oxide fibers with either 45°angled fiber tips or micro-mirrors. Average powers up to 8.5 W (850 mJ at 10 Hz) and transmission up to 70% was demonstrated through 450-μm-core, 1.5-meter-long fibers, sufficient for endoscopic laser ablation of soft and hard tissues in contact mode.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
StatePublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes
EventPhotonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics IV - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 19 2008Jan 19 2008


OtherPhotonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics IV
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA


  • Endoscopic
  • Erbium
  • Erbium:YAG
  • Erbium:YSGG
  • Fiber
  • Germanium oxide
  • Mid-infrared
  • Sapphire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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