Hematoma size after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) significantly affects patient outcome. However, our knowledge of endogenous mechanisms that underlie hematoma clearance and the potential role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is limited. Using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and a collagenase-induced ICH mouse model, we investigated the role of microglial IL-10 in phagocytosis ex vivo and hematoma clearance in vivo. In slice culture, exposure to hemoglobin induced IL-10 expression in microglia and enhanced phagocytosis that depended on IL-10–regulated expression of CD36. Following ICH, IL-10–deficient mice had more severe neuroinflammation, brain edema, iron deposition, and neurologic deficits associated with delayed hematoma clearance. Intranasal administration of recombinant IL-10 accelerated hematoma clearance and improved neurologic function. Additionally, IL-10–deficient mice had weakened in vivo phagocytic ability owing to decreased expression of microglial CD36. Moreover, loss of IL-10 significantly increased monocyte-derived macrophage infiltration and enhanced brain inflammation in vivo. These results indicate that IL-10 regulates microglial phagocytosis and monocyte-derived macrophage infiltration after ICH and that CD36 is a key phagocytosis effector regulated by IL-10. Leveraging the innate immune response to ICH by augmenting IL-10 signaling may provide a useful strategy for accelerating hematoma clearance and improving neurologic outcome in clinical translation studies.
- Hematoma clearance
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
- Behavioral Neuroscience