Embolotherapy using particle embolics is normally performed with exogenous contrast to assist in visualization. However, the exact location of the embolics cannot be identified after contrast washout. We developed a novel, pseudo-check valve-integrated microfluidic device, that partitions barium-impregnated alginate from crosslinking solution, thereby preventing nozzle failure. This enables rapid and continuous generation of inherently X-ray-visible embolic microspheres (XEMs) with uniform size. The XEMs are visible under clinical X-ray and cone beam CT both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, we demonstrated the embolization properties of these XEMs in large animals, performing direct intra-and post-procedural assessment of embolic delivery. The persistent radiopacity of these XEMs enables real-Time evaluation of embolization precision and offers great promise for non-invasive follow-up examination without exogenous contrast. We also demonstrated that bariatric arterial embolization with XEMs significantly suppresses weight gain in swine, as an example of a non-oncological application of embolotherapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering