BACKGROUND: There is little evidence guiding selection of nondiuretic, antihypertensive agents with a goal of lowering uric acid (SUA) and minimizing gout risk.
METHODS: In the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial, African Americans with chronic kidney disease were randomly assigned to metoprolol (a beta-blocker), ramipril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEi]), or amlodipine (a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker). SUA was measured at baseline and 12 months. Gout-related hospitalizations were based on ICD9 codes. Gout-related medication use (GRMs) was based on active prescriptions of allopurinol, colchicine, or probenecid during the baseline visit of the AASK cohort phase. We examined the effect of drug assignment on 12-month SUA (linear regression), gout-related hospitalization (Cox regression), and GRM (logistic regression).
RESULTS: Of the 630 participants, 40% were female with a mean age of 55 years (SD, 10), mean SUA of 8.2 mg/dl (2.0), and mean serum creatinine of 1.8 mg/dl (0.6). After 12 months, metoprolol increased SUA by 0.3 mg/dl, while ramipril or amlodipine had no effect on SUA. Compared to ramipril, metoprolol significantly increased 12-month SUA (0.40; 0.10, 0.70 mg/dl; P = 0.009), nonsignificantly increased risk of gout-related hospitalization (hazard ratio: 3.87; 0.82, 18.26; P = 0.09), and significantly increased the odds of GRM (odds ratio: 1.62; 1.03, 2.54; P = 0.04). While metoprolol was associated with a higher 12-month SUA compared with amlodipine (0.57; 0.18, 0.95; P = 0.004), there was no difference in gout-related hospitalizations or GRM.
CONCLUSIONS: Metoprolol increased SUA and GRM in African American adults. Health professionals treating patients with kidney disease at risk for gout should avoid metoprolol and possibly consider an ACEi.
CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Trial Number NCT00582777.
- blood pressure
- uric acid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine