To explore the role of DNA methylation in maintaining dosage compensation of X chromosome-linked genes and in regulating the transcriptional activity of 'housekeeping' genes, we characterized methylation of active, inactive, and derepressed alleles at the locus for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) on the human X chromosome. The methylation of Hpa II and Hha I sites in HPRT alleles on the active X chromosome was the same in all tissues. The consensus pattern includes hypomethylation of 5' clustered sites and extensive methylation in the 3' sequence. The striking feature of methylation of inactive X-chromosome alleles is nonuniformity and less extensive hypomethylation of the 5' cluster. Analysis of HPRT alleles reactivated in response to 5-azacytidine showed at least partial restoration of the consensus pattern. These observations indicate that methylation or housekeeping genes on the X chromosome is the same as that of autosomal ones and that the overall pattern and methylation of multiple sites within a cluster may cooperate to facilitate transcription. Furthermore, the fidelity of methylation of the active allele and the extensive drift in methylation of the inactive allele suggest that mechanisms involved in X-chromosome dosage compensation may be directed at the active rather than inactive X-chromosome.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Issue number||9 I|
|State||Published - 1984|
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