Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro

Mallikarjuna S. Basavarajappa, Zelieann R. Craig, Isabel Hernández-Ochoa, Tessie Paulose, Traci C. Leslie, Jodi A. Flaws

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E2) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24h for 96h. In addition, sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E2 metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E2, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P4) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-169
Number of pages9
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume253
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Methoxychlor
Metabolism
Estradiol
Enzymes
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Dimethyl Sulfoxide
Ovary
3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
Steroids
Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase
Endocrine Disruptors
Immunosorbents
Aromatase
Androstenedione
Estrus
Mixed Function Oxygenases
Antral
In Vitro Techniques
Pesticides
Atrophy

Keywords

  • Antral follicles
  • Metabolic enzymes
  • Methoxychlor
  • Ovary
  • Steroid hormones
  • Steroidogenic enzymes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Basavarajappa, M. S., Craig, Z. R., Hernández-Ochoa, I., Paulose, T., Leslie, T. C., & Flaws, J. A. (2011). Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 253(3), 161-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2011.04.007

Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro. / Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S.; Craig, Zelieann R.; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Paulose, Tessie; Leslie, Traci C.; Flaws, Jodi A.

In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 253, No. 3, 15.06.2011, p. 161-169.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Basavarajappa, MS, Craig, ZR, Hernández-Ochoa, I, Paulose, T, Leslie, TC & Flaws, JA 2011, 'Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro', Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 253, no. 3, pp. 161-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2011.04.007
Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S. ; Craig, Zelieann R. ; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel ; Paulose, Tessie ; Leslie, Traci C. ; Flaws, Jodi A. / Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro. In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2011 ; Vol. 253, No. 3. pp. 161-169.
@article{653fac29eea74066938b5881af141bfc,
title = "Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro",
abstract = "The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E2) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24h for 96h. In addition, sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E2 metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E2, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P4) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels.",
keywords = "Antral follicles, Metabolic enzymes, Methoxychlor, Ovary, Steroid hormones, Steroidogenic enzymes",
author = "Basavarajappa, {Mallikarjuna S.} and Craig, {Zelieann R.} and Isabel Hern{\'a}ndez-Ochoa and Tessie Paulose and Leslie, {Traci C.} and Flaws, {Jodi A.}",
year = "2011",
month = "6",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.taap.2011.04.007",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "253",
pages = "161--169",
journal = "Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology",
issn = "0041-008X",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro

AU - Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S.

AU - Craig, Zelieann R.

AU - Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel

AU - Paulose, Tessie

AU - Leslie, Traci C.

AU - Flaws, Jodi A.

PY - 2011/6/15

Y1 - 2011/6/15

N2 - The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E2) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24h for 96h. In addition, sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E2 metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E2, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P4) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels.

AB - The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E2) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24h for 96h. In addition, sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E2 metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E2, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P4) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels.

KW - Antral follicles

KW - Metabolic enzymes

KW - Methoxychlor

KW - Ovary

KW - Steroid hormones

KW - Steroidogenic enzymes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79956310493&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79956310493&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.taap.2011.04.007

DO - 10.1016/j.taap.2011.04.007

M3 - Article

C2 - 21514315

AN - SCOPUS:79956310493

VL - 253

SP - 161

EP - 169

JO - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

JF - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

SN - 0041-008X

IS - 3

ER -