Metabolic effects of chronic cannabis smoking

Ranganath Muniyappa, Sara Sable, Ronald Ouwerkerk, Andrea Mari, Ahmed M. Gharib, Mary Walter, Amber Courville, Gail Hall, Kong Y. Chen, Nora D. Volkow, George Kunos, Marilyn A. Huestis, Monica C. Skarulis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE-We examined if chronic cannabis smoking is associated with hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, reduced b-cell function, or dyslipidemia in healthy individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In a cross-sectional, case-control study, we studied cannabis smokers (n = 30; women, 12; men, 18; 27 ± 8 years) and control subjects (n = 30) matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI (27 ± 6). Abdominal fat depots and intrahepatic fat content were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Insulin-sensitivity indices and various aspects of β-cell function were derived from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). RESULTS-Self-reported cannabis use was: 9.5 (2-38) years; joints/day: 6 (3-30) [median (range)]. Carbohydrate intake and percent calories from carbohydrates, but not total energy intake, were significantly higher in cannabis smokers. There were no group differences in percent total body fat, or hepatic fat, but cannabis smokers had a higher percent abdominal visceral fat (18 ± 9 vs. 12 ± 5%; P = 0.004). Cannabis smokers had lower plasma HDL cholesterol (49 ± 14 vs. 55 ± 13 mg/dL; P = 0.02), but fasting levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or free fatty acids (FFA) were not different. Adipocyte insulin resistance index and percent FFA suppression during an OGTT was lower (P <0.05) in cannabis smokers. However, oral glucose insulin sensitivity index, measures of β-cell function, or incretin concentrations did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS-Chronic cannabis smoking was associated with visceral adiposity and adipose tissue insulin resistance but not with hepatic steatosis, insulin insensitivity, impaired pancreatic β-cell function, or glucose intolerance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2415-2422
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume36
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Medicine(all)

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  • Cite this

    Muniyappa, R., Sable, S., Ouwerkerk, R., Mari, A., Gharib, A. M., Walter, M., Courville, A., Hall, G., Chen, K. Y., Volkow, N. D., Kunos, G., Huestis, M. A., & Skarulis, M. C. (2013). Metabolic effects of chronic cannabis smoking. Diabetes Care, 36(8), 2415-2422. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-2303