Metabolic syndrome has deleterious effects on the CNS, and recent evidence suggests that obesity rates are higher at presentation in children who develop epilepsy. Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and acts in the brain and peripheral organs to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin deficiency predisposes toward metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular morbidity. To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and seizures, wild-type C57BL/6J and adiponectin knock-out mice were feda high-fat diet, followed by treatment with low doses of kainic acid to induce seizures. Adiponectin deficiency in mice fed a high-fat diet resulted in greater fat accumulation, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, increased seizure severity, and increased hippocampal pathology. In contrast, there were no adverse effects of adiponectin deficiency on metabolic phenotype or seizure activity in mice fed a normal (low-fat) chow diet. These findings demonstrate that metabolic syndrome modulates the outcome of seizures and brain injury.
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