Menstruation and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Its impact on mood

C. Neill Epperson, Liisa Hantsoo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In the premenstruum, women may experience physical or affective symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, or bloating. Such symptoms occur on a continuum, with approximately 3-8 % of women experiencing symptoms severe enough to impact function in daily activities. This severe cluster of symptoms is classified as Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Researchers continue to unravel the biopsychosocial contributors to premenstrual symptoms, including stress and hormonal changes. Women with premenstrual symptoms likely have altered central nervous system sensitivity to normal hormonal fluctuations. In particular, altered GABAergic response to neurosteroid metabolites may be key in the etiology of PMDD. This chapter includes a brief overview of the menstrual cycle, PMDD diagnosis and pathophysiology, and treatment approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationWomen's Reproductive Mental Health Across the Lifespan
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)9783319051161
ISBN (Print)3319051156, 9783319051154
StatePublished - Feb 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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