This study examines whether menopause is associated with three measures of psychological distress: depression, well-being, and sleep disturbance. Women aged 40-60 from the National Health Examination Follow-up Study were assigned to four groups based on their menopause status: Premenopause (n = 989), perimenopause (n = 312), natural menopause (n = 781), and surgical menopause (n = 967). Over the 10-year follow-up interval, no increase was found in depression, poor psychological well-being, or sleep disturbance associated with the menopause transition. Contrary to stereotypes about menopause, the only longitudinal change was a slight decline in depression over time for all groups, and psychological distress was unrelated to the number of years since menopause and the timing of menopausal transition. The present results suggest that the psychological distress of middle-aged women is unlikely to be related to menopause.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health(social science)
- Sociology and Political Science
- Life-span and Life-course Studies