Mechanoregulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in cancer therapy

Ganesan Raja, Shijie Cao, Deok Ho Kim, Tae Jin Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs), first developed in the 1990s, have been applied in numerous biomedical fields such as tissue engineering and therapeutic drug development. In recent years, TiO2-based drug delivery systems have demonstrated the ability to decrease the risk of tumorigenesis and improve cancer therapy. There is increasing research on the origin and effects of pristine and doped TiO2-based nanotherapeutic drugs. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which drug delivery to cancer cells alters sensing of gene mutations, protein degradation, and metabolite changes as well as its associated cumulative effects that determine the microenvironmental mechanosensitive metabolism have not yet been clearly elucidated. This review focuses on the microenvironmental influence of TiO2-NPs induced various mechanical stimuli on tumor cells. The differential expression of genome, proteome, and metabolome after treatment with TiO2-NPs is summarized and discussed. In the tumor microenvironment, mechanosensitive DNA mutations, gene delivery, protein degradation, inflammatory responses, and cell viability affected by the mechanical stimuli of TiO2-NPs are also examined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110303
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
StatePublished - Feb 2020


  • Endocytosis
  • Metabolomics
  • Oxidative stress
  • Proteogenomics
  • TiO nanoparticles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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