We have used the bradykinin analog, [dArg0-Hyp3-dPhe7]-bradykinin, as a model stimulus with which to examine peptide-induced mediator release from human skin mast cells (SMC) and to compare it with IgE-mediated release from the same cells. The bradykinin analog was an effective histamine secretagogue, inducing a comparable maximal level of release to that observed for anti-IgE. By contrast to anti-IgE, however, [dArg0-Hyp3-dPhe7]-bradykinin did not stimulate marked release of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) from these cells. In experiments where cells were exposed to both stimuli simultaneously, histamine release was additive, while PGD2 release was the same as that observed for anti-IgE alone. The kinetics of [dArg0-Hyp3-dPhe7]-bradykinin-stimulated histamine release were rapid, with 50% of maximal release being achieved within 30sec, compared to 2-3 min for anti-IgE. Interestingly, when both stimuli were applied simultaneously, the kinetics of release were intermediate between those of either stimulus alone. Studies of the signal transduction pathways that may be involved in [dArg0-Hyp3-dPhe7]-bradykinin-induced histamine release revealed striking differences to results obtained with anti-IgE. While agents that increase intracellular cyclic AMP have a pronounced inhibitory effect on IgE-mediated release, forskolin, isobutylmethylxanthine and isoproterenol were all totally ineffective at inhibiting histamine release induced by the bradykinin analog. Similarly, staurosporine, a relatively selective inhibitor of protein kinase C, and the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) an activator of this enzyme, both have pronounced effects on IgE-mediated histamine release from SMC but were completely inactive with regard to [dArg0-Hyp3-dPhe7]-bradykinin-stimulated release. SMC stimulated with this peptide showed characteristic changes in intracellular free calcium levels, as assessed by digital video microscopy. This response differs from that induced by anti-IgE in that it had a more rapid onset, achieved a lower peak, and decayed much more rapidly. Analysis at the single cell level showed that cells that responded in this fashion upon exposure to the bradykinin analog were capable of showing an additional response upon subsequent exposure to anti-IgE. We conclude that histamine release from SMC in response to [dArg0-Hyp3-dPhe7]-bradykinin occurs via a completely different mechanism from that in response to IgE-mediated stimuli. Peptide-induced release is rapid and is not susceptible to pharmacologie manipulation of intracellular cyclic AMP or protein kinase C but utilizes a rapid transient shift in intracellular calcium concentrations as part of its signal transduction pathway.
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